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PRONUMELE

Pronumele inlocuiesc substantive. Cele sase tipuri de adjective (calitativ, posesiv, interogativ, cantitativ, demonstrativ, distributiv) prezentate in Lectia 9 au forme pronominale. Ele urmeaza in general reguli identice. Exista de asemenea si pronume personale si reflexive.

 

A. Adjective calificative + one / ones

  1. inlocuieste un substantiv care a fost mentionat mai devreme (adica are functie de pronume):

I won’t lend you my new pen. You can borrow my old one.

Tony missed his train. He caught the next one instead.

 

  1. superlativele si culorile pot fi folosite singure:

Sandra is the best (dancer).

Don’t wear your blue shoes. The black (ones) look better.

That painting is the most valuable (one) in the museum.

 

B. Pronumele posesive – forma: (sg) mine, your, his / hers; (pl) ours, yours, theirs. Utilizare – pronumele posesive inlocuiesc adjectivele posesive. Substantivul care lipseste a fost mentionat mai inainte.

This is my book. This book is mine.

We’re using his car, not her car. We’re using his, not hers.

 

NOTA: Of yours inseamna one of your + substantiv.

             of mine inseamna one of my + substantiv etc.

John is a friend of ours. = John is one of our friends.

 

C. Pronume interrogative – forma: who, whom, whose, what, which. Utilizare:

 

Persoane

Lucruri

subiect

who

what

which

which

complement

whom, who

what

which

which

posesiv

whose

 

 

NOTA: Pronumele interogative sunt invariabile. Ele au o singura forma.

Who is that girl?

Who are those men?

 

In engleza formala whom este folosit ca si complement obiect direct. Engleza vorbita il foloseste pe who.

Whom did you see? (formal)

Who did you see? (informal)

D. Pronume cantitative – forma: much, many, little, few, some, any, none. Utilizare:

  1. many si few inlocuiesc substantive numarabile; much si little inlocuiesc substantive nenumarabile:

Many are called but few are chosen. (proverb)

He didn’t spend much (money). In fact he spent very little.

 

  1. none se foloseste in propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima negatia:

If all friends were like Harry, I’d rather have none.

Sam hates carrying suitcases. He travels with none.

 

ATENTIE! Some, any, no se combina cu -one, -body, -thing formand cuvintele compuse: someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing. Aceste pronume urmeaza aceleasi reguli.

Does anyone want to accompany me?

They saw something strange that night.

Nothing happened.

 

E. Pronumele demonstrative – forma: this, that, these si those. Utilizare:

  1. pronumele demonstrative se acorda in numar cu substantivul pe care il inlocuiesc:

This (umbrella) is mine. That is his.

These (umbrellas) are mine. Those are his.

 

  1. this, these se refera la obiecte din preajma vorbitorului. That, those se refera la obiecte aflate mai departe de vorbitor:

This (one) is here, that (one) is there.

 

F. Pronumele distributive – forma: each, all, everyone / everybody, everything, both, either, neither. Utilizare:

  1. each inseamna “considerati individual” si urmeaza un verb la singular; all inseamna “considerati impreuna” si urmeaza un verb la plural:

Each chose the colour he preferred.

All are welcome.

 

  1. each, all, both si either / neither pot fi urmate de OF + substantiv / pronume:

Each of the boys / us felt ashamed.

All of the students / you are invited to the club.

Both of his grandparents / them are still living.

Either of you / Neither of the men can go.

 

G. Pronume personale – forma:

subiect

complement

I

me

you

you

he

him

she

her

it

it

we

us

you

you

they

them

 

Utilizare:

  1. toate verbele limbii engleze (cu exceptia imperativelor) TREBUIE sa aiba subiect pronominal:

They dislike inefficiency.

DAR: Come here!

 

  1. complementele pronominale (directe sau indirecte) urmeaza o prepozitie sau verbul:

I spoke to her yesterday.

We saw them on the beach.

He gave her an engagement ring.

 

  1. you and one sunt folosite impersonal cu sensul de everyone, no one sau anyone. One are un aspect formal. You este mai frecvent in engleza vorbita:

You / one should respect the basic liberties of others. (= Everyone should respect the basic liberties of others.)

You / one cannot enter that lab. (= No one can enter that lab.)

 

  1. they este folosit impersonal cu sensul de “lumea spune”, “se zice”:

They say he’s dishonest. (= People say he’s dishonest.)

 

  1. it + be se foloseste:
    • pentru lucruri sau fiinte cu genul necunoscut:

Where’s my book? It is on the shelf.

Look at that bird! It’s making a nest.

·        cu un substantiv / complement pronominal pentru a se referi la persoane:

Who’s at the door? It’s Olivia.

Who was singing? Was it him? No, it was me.

·        in expresii despre vreme, temperatura, timp, date, distante:

It’s cold outside.

What time is it? It’s nine o’clock.

It’s the 4th of July.

How far is it to Chicago? It’s ten miles.

 

H. Pronume reflexive – forma:

singular

plural

myself

ourselves

yourself

yourselves

himself

themselves

herself

 

itself

 

 

Utilizare:

  1. cu verbe reflexive. Cele mai frecvente verbe reflexive sunt: to enjoy oneself, to amuse oneself, to help oneself, to hurt oneself, to trouble oneself, to cut oneself, to wash oneself etc.

The little boy hurt himself during the game.

Please help yourself to the buffet!

 

NOTA: Multe verbe care sunt in mod normal reflexive in alte limbi NU sunt reflexive in engleza. Astfel de verbe sunt: to wash, to dress, to comb, to shave, to meet etc.

Sue and Brian met last year.

He washed his hands.

 

  1. cu functie de complemente prepozitionale:

She looked at herself in the mirror.

Why are you so angry with yourself?

 

  1. pentru intarire:

The president himself attended the summit.

Annie herself made the decision.

 

NOTA: By + pronume reflexiv inseamna “de unul singur”. Un pronume reflexiv folosit cu un verb nereflexiv inseamna “fara ajutorul nimanui”.

I live by myself. = I live alone.

I fixed it myself. = I fixed it without any help.

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