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PREPOZITIILE

Prepozitiile sunt in mod normal asezate in fata substantivelor sau pronumelor si dupa verbe. Ele pot de asemenea precede verbele in -ING. Exemplele de mai jos nu sunt exhaustive, ci sunt grupate dupa utilizarile lor cele mai frecvente pe 4 categorii: miscare, pozitiie, timp, diverse.

 

A. Miscare

  1. Miscare in sus / in jos:
    • down:

Sam broke his arm when he fell down the slope. (o miscare in jos)

The Conservative Government went down at the last elections. (o scadere a respectului, statutului)

·        up:

The cat always climbs up a tree to hide whenever it hears our dog bark. (o miscare in sus)

Bill has come up in the world since he won 10, 000, 000 $ on the lottery last spring. (a se deplasa in sus pe scara sociala, a dobandi respect)

·        on(to):

I had to move the books on(to) the top shelf so my child couldn’t reach them. (o miscare spre o suprafat mai inalta)

·        off:

When the cat saw a mouse running across the floor it jumped off the sofa to chase it. (o miscare catre o suprafata mai joasa)

 

NOTA: Utilizarea speciala a structurilor-tip, precum:

up / down the street                  up to / down to the supermarket

on / off a bus, bicycle, plane, ship etc, DAR: into / out of a car

 

  1. Deplasare printr-un spatiu.
    • across:

It takes a long time to sail across the Atlantic. (o miscare dintr-o parte in cealalta, pe sau aproape de o suprfata)

·        along:

If you walk along the Champs Elysees you will eventually reach the Eiffel Tower. (a parcurge lungimea a ceva)

·        by:

If you pass by the shops today, will you get me a litre of milk? (a se misca de-a lungul sau in apropierea a ceva)

·        past:

My colleague walked straight past me without even saying hello. (a se misca in trecere pe langa ceva / cineva)

·        through:

The gateway was so narrow that the truck driver had problems getting through it. (a se misca printre lucruri)

·        over:

It’s quicker to fly over the Atlantic than to sail across it. (a se misca pe deasupra unei suprafete dintr-o parte in alta a ceva)

 

  1. Directii:
    • around:

I went all around the house to find an open window, but I couldn’t. (miscari pe o traiectorie circulara)

·        at:

He looked at me is if I were a criminal. (catre cineva sau ceva)

·        away from:

When I was a boy I ran away from school because I didn’t like it. (a parasi, a pleca de la cineva sau ceva)

 

NOTA: Away from poate fi folosit si in sens abstract:

I can’t wait to get away from it all. (= free from everything)

 

·        for:

Sherlock Homes left for Glasgow as soon as he received the news of the murder.

·        into:

The last when they saw (of) the explorer was when he went into the jungle to hunt for tigers.

·        onto:

The professor put his papers onto the books on the table, and began his lesson. (a aseza ceva peste altceva)

·        out of:

The prisoner was let out of prison after a ten year sentence.

·        to:

Can you give me a lift to work tomorrow morning, please? (a se deplasa In directia unei anumite personae sau a unui lucru)

·        towards:

I think we should head towards the mountain; it’s much cooler there at this time of the year.

 

NOTA: at versus to:

The teacher got very angry and shouted at the pupil. (cand esti nervos)

I shouted to Michael from my garden. (cand vrei sa atrgi atentia)

I shouted ‘Catch!’ and threw the keys to Louis. (cand vrei sa prinda ce arunci)

The opera singer sang so badly that someone in the audience threw an egg at him. (cand vrei sa lovesti pe cineva sau ceva)

 

  1. Miscari comparative:
    • after:

The shop-keeper ran after the boy who smashed his window. (a urma sau urmari)

·        ahead of/ in front of:

I’ll go ahead of / in front of you and find a place to camp for the night. (a precede pe cineva sau ceva)

·        behind:

The old lady drove so close behind me that, when I hit the brakes, she crashed into me. (a urmari pe cineva sau ceva, a urma cuiva)

 

B. Pozitie.

  1. Pozitie pe verticala:
    • above:

The kite flew above our heads. (mult mai sus decat altceva, chiar si la figurativ).

·        below:

I feel a pain just below my shoulder. (ceva imediat inferior unui alt lucru, si la figurativ)

·        on:

The film star was wearing an enormous diamond ring on her finger. (similar cu above, dar in contact cu ceva)

·        to:

Jane was always second to top in her class at school. (estimari relative)

·        under:

The tunnel under the English Channel was opened in the summer of 1994. (similar cu below, dar obiectul este mai aproape de ceva)

·        in:

My little boy closed himself in the bathroom and couldn’t get out. (un spatiu inchis)

 

  1. Pozitii relative:
    • against:

Don’t lean against that post. It’s just been painted. (in contact cu altcineva sau altceva)

·        around:

He must be around here somewhere, I can see his footprints. (vecinatate)

·        at:

I always see him at my local pub. (o pozitie precisa)

·        by:

Bill’s very lucky; he has a summer house by the sea. (proximitate)

·        near:

I live near my office, so I can walk to work. (aproape de cineva sau ceva)

·        next to:

I would hate to live next to a factory. (similar cu near, dar mai aproape)

 

  1. Pozitii opuse:

·        behind:

Don’t turn around, Jack. There’s a snake behind you. (asezat in spatele a ceva sau al cuiva)

·        facing:

Turn your seat facing me so I can see you properly. (privind in directia a ceva sau a cuiva)

·        opposite:

They built a mall opposite my house. (similar cu facing)

 

C. Timp.

  1. Timpul pe ceas:
    • about:

I should be there about noon. (un timp aproximativ)

·        around:

I should be there around noon. (similar cu about)

·        at:

The film starts at 8 o’clock. (timpul exact)

 

NOTA: at se foloseste si pentru a face referiri la perioada din preajma sarbatorilor:

I always go visit my relatives for a week at Christmas / Easter.

 

·        in:

I like to swim in the morning. It doesn’t rain much in Greece in summer. My daughter was born in 1988. (o parte a zilei, luni, anotimpuri, ani)

·        on:

The road works will start on Monday. I last saw him on July 4th. The Queen’s speech is broadcast on Christmas day. (cu zile ale saptamanii, date, zile anumite)

 

  1. Timpul de dinainte si de dupa…

·        after:

I can’t see you until after lunch, so come at 2.00 o’clock. (mai tarziu decat un timp sau un eveniment dat)

·        before:

Before we start, I’d just like to introduce myself. (inaintea unui timp sau eveniment dat)

·        by:

Application must be submitted by June 5th. (ceva care se petrece inainte sau nu mai tarziu de un moment dat)

·        past:

I tired. It’s past my bed time. (similar cu after, dar mai colocvial, folosit si pentru a exprima ora)

 

  1. Durata in timp:

·        about:

The play will probably last about two and a half hours. (durata estimata)

·        between:

The period between leaving school and going to university was a stressful one. (de la un punct dat in timp la altul)

·        during:

I managed not to do any work during my holiday, though I should have. (o perioada stabilita in timp)

·        for:

World War II went on for six years. (duraat unei perioade date de timp)

·        in:

I’m going shopping. I’ll be back in an hour. (o anumita durata)

·        since:

Italy has been a republic since 1945. (de la punctul de inceput din trecut pana in prezent)

·        until:

Hong Kong belonged to England until 1997, when it went back to China. (durata pana la un punct dat in timp)

 

D. Diverse.

·        because of:

The UK is suffering because of economic crisis. (cauza, si separat: doar of, cu acelasi sens)

·        for:

The martyr died for his belief. (similar cu because of, dar legat in general de credinte) A knife is used for cutting things. (scop)

 

NOTA: For, cand arata scopul, exprima UTILITATEA PRINCIPALA a subiectului. In implica faptul ca subiectul este doar O PARTE a procesului.

Flour is used for making bread.

Sand is used in the production of glass.

 

·        with:

Susana cried with joy when she read her exam results. (un sentiment care determina o actiune) Hit the glass with a hammer, if you wan to break it. (folosirea unui instrument)

·        by:

John Lennon was killed by an assassin’s bullet. (prin actiunea cuiva / ceva) Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. (creatia cuiva)

·        like:

My husband acts like a child when he can’t get his own way. (un anumit comportament) Even though they are twins they don’t look like each other. (pentru a compara fiinte / lucruri)

·        as:

She works as a nurse in the Emergency Room.

·        but:

He took everything but the kitchen sink. (expresie; cu exceptia a ceva sau cineva)

·        at:

My daughter, Emma, has always been good at drawing. (abilitati intr-o anume activitate)

·        in:

My daughter, Emma, has always been interested in drawing. (similar cu at, dar nu se poate folosi cu good sau bad)

·        from:

My family comes from Warrington in Cheshire. (originea) I learnt to cook from my friend Tom. (originea / sursa)

·        with:

The little girl always goes to sleep with her cuddly teddy. (legatura, atasament)

·        without:

I always drink coffee without sugar. (opusul lui with)

·        for:

This grammar book is for foreign students of English. (ceva potrivit) Romeo and Juliet were made for each other, (cineva destinat, potrivit)

 

Super Slim