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VERBELE BE, DO, HAVE

VERBUL BE

BE – WAS – BEEN

Utilizare:

1.      pentru construirea timpurilor continue si a formei pasive:

The old man is taking an afternoon nap.

The bridge was destroyed by the earthquake.

 

2.      pentru a exprima existenta, starea fizica sau mentala sau alte informatii despre o persoana sau un lucru:

Dr. Johnson is a dentist. He is calm and patient.

 

3.      pentru a exprima varsta:

The baby is two months old. How old are you?

 

4.      BE TO + INFINITIV: pentru a da ordine/instructiuni sau pentru a comunica un plan:

You are to finish your homework before dinner. (= You must finish…)

The chairman is to give his annual speech tomorrow. (= He plans to give…)

 

5.      BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIV: pentru a indica viitorul imediat:

Meg is about to leave. (= Meg is on the point of leaving.)

 

6.      THERE + BE + SUBSTANTIV: pentru a indica existenta unei fiinte sau a unui lucru:

There are two pieces of cake left in the fridge.

There is a person outside the door.

 

 

VERBUL DO

DO – DID – DONE

Utilizare: DO se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis.

A. DO ca verb auxiliar:

1.      pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului simplu so trecutului simplu:

The kitten doesn’t play with strangers.

Did they go to the opera yesterday?

 

2.      pentru a evita repetarea aceluiasi verb sau aceleiasi expresii:

My company made a profit last year but IBM did not.

Mary typed that letter very badly. She certainly did!

 

3.      pentru a sublinia un afirmativ sau imperativ:

Do eat your vegetables!

You’re wrong: I did pay you!

B. DO ca verb propriu-zis – are sensul general de a duce la bun sfarsit, a realiza, a executa, a administra, a pune in practica:

Students should do the exercises at the end of each unit.

He always does the job well.

The office clerk did the transaction yesterday.

NOTA: A nu se confunda DO cu MAKE! Verbul MAKE are sensul general de a crea, a produce, a construi, a cauza, a face sa fie sau a prepara. Comparati:

to do someone a favour                         to make a friend

to do one’s best                                     to make the bed

to do good                                            to make money

to do the dishes                                     to make a rule

to do the shopping                                to make a mistake

to do one’s homework             to make a mess

to do a crossword puzzle                      to make a living

to do one’s duty                                    to make fun of someone

to do well/badly                                     to make oneself at home

 

VERBUL HAVE

HAVE – HAD – HAD

Utilizare: HAVE se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis.

 

A. HAVE ca verb auxiliar:

1.      pentru a forma alte timpuri:

Present perfect: I have worked.

Past perfect: I had worked.

Future perfect: I will have worked.

Past conditional: I would have worked.

 

2.      HAD BETTER + INFINITIV fara TO (short INFINITIVE):

They had better study hard from the first day of school. (It would be a good idea if they studied hard from…)

You’d better go home. (It would be a good idea if you went home.)

 

3.      I WON’T HAVE + COMPLEMENT + -ING:

I won’t have that dog sleeping on my bed! (I won’t permit that dog to sleep on my bed!)

B. HAVE ca verb propriu-zis:

1.      posesia:

Anne always has a cold.

Anne doesn’t always have a cold.

Does Anne always have a cold?

 

Cand HAVE este urmat de GOT, se intareste sensul posesiv.

Debbie’s got a lovely voice.

Have you got a computer?

 

2.      a manca, a bea sau a organiza:

The twins usually have dinner early.

My aunt Mary doesn’t have coffee often.

Our neighbours had a cocktail party last week.

 

3.      HAVE + COMPLEMENT + PAST PARTICIPLE:

Mrs. Riley had her house painted. (Mrs. Riley got someone to paint her house.)

My best friend has his hair trimmed every Friday. (My best friend has someone to cut his hair every Friday.)

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