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TRECUTUL SI TIMPURILE PERFECTE

TRECUTUL SIMPLU (SIMPLE PAST TENSE)

 

Trecutul simplu - FORMA

Afirmativ: INFINITIV + ed (vb regulate)

Forma a II-a a vb. (vb neregulate)

Negativ: did not + INFINITIV

Interogativ: did + subiect + INFINITIV

 

Utilizare:

  1. o actiune finalizata in trecut cand este mentionat momentul actiunii:

Tom arrived yesterday.

Columbus discovered America in 1492.

Adverbele sau expresiile de timp pot fi o marca a trecutului simplu: yesterday, last week, two years ago, last summer, a month ago etc.

 

  1. o actiune finalizata SIGUR in trecut chiar daca timpul NU este mentionat:

Brutus assassinated Julius Caesar.

Did you ever see Winston Churchill in person?

 

  1. o obisnuinta din trecut:

She always woke up early on school days.

Sarah never ate pork as a child.

Este adesea insotit de adverbe de frecventa: sometimes, often, always, usually, rarely, seldom etc.

 

  1. o naratiune in trecut:

I stopped to buy a newspaper and then sat down on a bench to read it. The news was quite depressing. So I got up and took a walk and tried to think happy thoughts.

 

TRECUTUL CONTINUU (PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS)

 

Trecutul continuu - FORMA

Forma de trecut a lui to be + ING

 

Utilizare:

  1. actiuni trecute cu o anumita durata, dar ale caror limite precise in timp nu sunt cunoscute:

It was raining and getting colder.

  1. actiuni trecute care au inceput inainte si au continuat probabil dupa un anumit moment dat:

At noon the sun was shining.

At 10 o’clock at night Jerry was studying.

Momentul dat poate fi exprimat si de o expresie de timp la trecutul simplu:

When Tom arrived, the sun was shining.

 

  1. actiuni in curs de derulare in trecut (in descrieri):

The flowers were blooming, the birds were singing and the breeze was blowing softly.

 

COMPARATI: diferenta de sens dintre cele doua timpuri:

When the bell rang, Sam was having breakfast. (Sam was in the middle of breakfast when the bell started to ring.) – continuitate

When the door bell rang, Sam ran to open the door. (Sam ran to the door as soon as the door bell rang.) – spontaneitate

 

TRECUTUL SIMPLU (SIMPLE PAST TENSE)

 

Trecutul simplu - FORMA

Afirmativ: INFINITIV + ed (vb regulate)

Forma a II-a a vb. (vb neregulate)

Negativ: did not + INFINITIV

Interogativ: did + subiect + INFINITIV

 

Utilizare:

  1. o actiune finalizata in trecut cand este mentionat momentul actiunii:

Tom arrived yesterday.

Columbus discovered America in 1492.

Adverbele sau expresiile de timp pot fi o marca a trecutului simplu: yesterday, last week, two years ago, last summer, a month ago etc.

 

  1. o actiune finalizata SIGUR in trecut chiar daca timpul NU este mentionat:

Brutus assassinated Julius Caesar.

Did you ever see Winston Churchill in person?

 

  1. o obisnuinta din trecut:

She always woke up early on school days.

Sarah never ate pork as a child.

Este adesea insotit de adverbe de frecventa: sometimes, often, always, usually, rarely, seldom etc.

 

  1. o naratiune in trecut:

I stopped to buy a newspaper and then sat down on a bench to read it. The news was quite depressing. So I got up and took a walk and tried to think happy thoughts.

 

TRECUTUL CONTINUU (PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS)

 

Trecutul continuu - FORMA

Forma de trecut a lui to be + ING

 

Utilizare:

  1. actiuni trecute cu o anumita durata, dar ale caror limite precise in timp nu sunt cunoscute:

It was raining and getting colder.

  1. actiuni trecute care au inceput inainte si au continuat probabil dupa un anumit moment dat:

At noon the sun was shining.

At 10 o’clock at night Jerry was studying.

Momentul dat poate fi exprimat si de o expresie de timp la trecutul simplu:

When Tom arrived, the sun was shining.

 

  1. actiuni in curs de derulare in trecut (in descrieri):

The flowers were blooming, the birds were singing and the breeze was blowing softly.

 

COMPARATI: diferenta de sens dintre cele doua timpuri:

When the bell rang, Sam was having breakfast. (Sam was in the middle of breakfast when the bell started to ring.) – continuitate

When the door bell rang, Sam ran to open the door. (Sam ran to the door as soon as the door bell rang.) – spontaneitate

 

EXERCITII

 

1. Transformati intrebarile in propozitii afirmative:

 

  1. Did John come at midnight?

………………………………………………………………

  1. Did the children understand the instructions?

………………………………………………………………

  1. Did Dr. Carter bring the antibiotics?

………………………………………………………………

  1. Did the cook freeze the strawberries?

………………………………………………………………

  1. Did his mother fly with KLM?

………………………………………………………………

  1. Did the Browns drive all the way to Arizona?

………………………………………………………………

  1. Did she feed the cat?

………………………………………………………………

  1. Did Elvis Presley sing in the 60’s?

………………………………………………………………

  1. Did the children fight again?

………………………………………………………………

  1.  Did Joe pay for the chocolate?

………………………………………………………………

 

2. Folositi trecutul simplu sau continuu:

 

1.       Ted ..................... (wake) up because the children ........................ (make) noise.

2.       The boys …………………… (row) in the middle of the lake when they ……………….. (hear) a loud thunder.

3.       Grandfather ………………… (strike) a match and the wood ……………… (catch) fire immediately.

4.       The maid …………………… (polish) the crystal glass when it suddenly ………………… (slip) and ……………….. (crash) to the ground.

5.       Dr. Jones ........................... (write) a prescription when the phone ..................... (ring).

6.       You ………………….. (like) the play last night? Yes indeed, I ………………… (think) it was very well acted.

7.       I always ………………… (carry) the front door key in my purse, but my husband …………………… (convince) me not to.

8.       Even though Mark ……………… still ……………….. (talk), Vanessa …………………………. (fall asleep).

9.       The plumber …………………… (leave), when the old lady finally ………………… (open) the door.

10.   I’m sorry, I ………………….. (not pay) attention to what you ……………………… (say).

 

PERFECTUL PREZENT (PRESENT PERFECT)

 

Perfectul prezent - FORMA

have + participiul trecut (forma a III-a vb regulate si neregulate)

 

Utilizare: Perfectul prezent are o legatura clara cu prezentul, chiar daca este un timp trecut din punct de vedere gramatical.

 

  1. actiuni care au inceput in trecut si s-au terminat cu putin inainte de momentul prezent:

I have done my homework. Can I go out now?

 

  1. actiuni trecute recente cand timpul nu este mentionat:

I have lost my address book.

Have the children had their dinner?

The boss has read you report.

 

  1. impreuna cu urmatoarele adverbe si expresii de timp (se foloseste pentru  lega un moment trecut nedefinit de prezent): just, already, since, for, recently, lately, yet, so far, never … before, before now, ever, today, this week, this century, this morning, this evening, in the last few days, in the past month, in recent weeks etc.

Has the teacher corrected the tests yet?

They haven’t been able to do it so far.

There hasn’t been any rain in the past month.

What have you done today?

Medicine has made great progress this century.

 

NOTA: For indica durata de timp: Jim has studied karate for two months.

            Since indica punctul de inceput in timp: Sally’s been ill since Monday.

 

PERFECTUL PREZENT CONTINUU (PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS)

 

Perfectul prezent continuu  - FORMA

Perfectul prezent al lui to be (have been, has been) + ING

 

Utilizare:

  1. se foloseste pentru actiuni care au inceput in trecut si continua pana in momentul prezent:

I have been waiting for an hour and the museum has still not opened!

Harry can’t come right now: he has been cleaning the garage and needs a shower.

 

COMPARATI: diferenta de sens intre cele doua timpuri:

Mary has polished the silver. (Mary has just finished.)

Mary has been polishing the silver. (Mary may still be polishing.)

 

MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL (PAST PERFECT)

 

Mai mult ca perfectul - FORMA

had + participiul trecut

 

Utilizare: Mai mult ca perfectul este trecutul perfectului prezent.

 

  1. se foloseste la fel ca perfectul prezent in CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR. Comparati:

Perfectul prezent: Larry’s wife is quite worried: she hasn’t heard from him for several days.

Mai mult ca perfectul: Larry’s wife was quite worried: she hadn’t heard from his for several days.

 

  1. pentru a sublinia ca o actiune trecuta a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute:

After the illustrator had finished, the book was finally ready for publication.

Seeing that their mother had fallen ill, the children grew depressed.

 

NOTA: Cand nu este necesara sublinierea succesiunii evenimentelor sau cand este clar ca o actiune s-a petrecut inaintea celeilalte, se folosesc doua trecuturi simple.

Tony felt relieved when he passed the exam.

The executioner waited until the prisoner finished smoking his last cigarette.

 

MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL CONTINUU (PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS)

 

Mai mult ca perfectul continuu - FORMA

had been + ING

 

Utilizare:

  1. se foloseste la fel ca perfectul prezent continuu, numai ca sensul este mutat mai demult in trecut (vezi CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR):

Perfectul prezent continuu: It is time to stop. Hillary has been working non-stop since breakfast!

Mai mult ca perfectul continuu: It was time to stop. Hillary had been working non-stop since breakfast!

 

  1. poate exprima o actiune trecuta repatata, care a durat pana la un moment dat in timp:

My father had been getting up at daybreak until his accident.

I had been calling her every evening until we quarreled.

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