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CONDITIONALUL

 

Conditional present - FORMA

Conditional perfect - FORMA

would / should + INFINITIV

would / should + HAVE + participiul trecut

 

Utilizare:

  1. la fel ca viitorul simplu, cand verbul principal este la trecut:

I think he will come. – I thought he would come.

Sam says mother will get well. – Sam said mother would get well.

  1. pentru a face referiri la actiuni obisnuite in trecut:

When we lived in Africa we would often spend our weekends outdoor.

When Helen was a baby she would cry all night long.

  1. in propozitii subordinate dupa: advise, agree, arrange, ask, beg, command, decide, demand, determine, insist, order, propose, recommend, request, suggest, be anxious, be determined.

The doctor decided (that) the patient should have his appendix out.

Mrs. Walker is anxious (that) her son should get the job.

  1. cu it is / was + adjectiv + that…should:

It is essential that the students should get to their lesson on time.

It was strange that he should say that.

  1. dupa can’t think, don’t know why sau see no reason why:

I can’t think why Frank should apologise.

I don’t know why my neighbour should do that.

I see no reason why we should worry.

  1. cu oferte si cereri:

Would you prefer tea or coffee?

Would you like to see my stamp collection?

 

NOTA: Would rather… inseamna “a prefera sa”:

I would rather have coffee than tea.

 

  1. in propozitii conditionale (if clauses). Exista trei tipuri de propozitii conditionale in engleza:

 

Tipuri

Propozitie principala

 

 

IF

Propozitie subordonata

Conditional I

Viitor cu will

(uneori Pres. Simple)

Prezent simplu

(Present Simple)

Conditional II

Conditional prezent

(Present Conditional)

Trecut simplu

(Past Tense)

Conditional III

Conditional perfect

(Perfect Conditional)

Mai mult ca perfect

(Past Perfect)

 

Conditional I

 

Utilizare:

 

  1. cand situatia din propoztia conditionala este probabila, sau se presupune ca se va intampla. Desi sensul poate fi de prezent sau viitor, verbul din propozitia conditionala este intotdeauna la timpul prezent:

The vase will break if you drop it.

If it snows on Christmas day, Emma and Ben will make a snowman.

Will you get me some milk, if you go to the supermarket?

 

  1. verbele modale (ex: can, may, must, should)  il pot inlocui pe will in propozitia principala:

You can enter the stadium, if you have a ticket.

If he isn’t in, you may leave a message.

Jim must work very hard if he wants to get elected.

If you want to wear that dress in summer you should lose some weight. (sugestie sau sfat)

 

  1. cu doua timpuri prezente (cate unul in amandoua propozitiile) pentru a indica rezultate automate sau obisnuinte:

If you push that button, the machine shuts down.

If you don’t ask for help, you don’t get it.

If you mix red and blue, you get purple.

 

  1. cu timpuri prezente continue sau perfecte in propozitia conditionala:

If the Goodmans are coming for dinner, I’ll open a special bottle of wine. (Prezent continuu pentru a indica un aranjament in viitor)

If you are making a cup of coffee, I’ll have one too. (Prezent continuu pentru a indica o actiune in desfasurare in prezent)

If you haven’t seen that film yet, we’ll go tonight. (Prezent perfect pentru a indica o legatura cu prezentul)

 

NOTA: Unless inseamna “if... not”:

Unless it’s a sunny day tomorrow, we won’t go to that picnic. (= If it is not a sunny day tomorrow, we won’t go to that picnic.)

Otherwise inseamna “or else”:

You must study, otherwise you will fail the exam. (= You must study, or else you will fail the exam. = If you don’t study, you will fail the exam.)

 

Conditional II

 

Utilizare:

 

  1. cand situatia din subordonata conditionala este improbabila sau ipotetica:

If I won the lottery, I would stop working. (but I don’t believe I’ll win)

If you stopped breathing, you would die. (but you don’t intend to stop breathing)

If the distance to the train station were shorter, I would walk there. (the distance is unlikely to change)

If I were you, I’d buy a bigger car. (but I’m not you)

 

NOTA: If I were you poate fi folosit si pentru a da sfaturi:

If I were you, I’d apologise to her.

 

  1. pentru a sugestie politicoasa sau pentru a exprima o ipoteza perfect realizabila. Comparati:

If we go in two cars, we will be more comfortable.

If we went in two cars, we would be more comfortable. (mai politicos)

 

  1. verbele modale la un timp trecut il pot inlocui pe would. Sensurile se modifica in mod corespunzator. Comparati:

If Mr. Lynch applied for the job, he would get it. (sigur)

If Mr. Lynch applied for the job, he might get it. (posibil)

If Mr. Lynch got the job, he could start next Monday. (implica abilitatea sau permisiunea)

 

Conditional III

 

Utilizare:

 

  1. cand situatia din subordonata conditionala este in trecut, deci imposibila:

If we had taken an umbrella with us last night, we would not have got wet. (we didn’t take an umbrella last night and so we got wet)

If Jack had studied law at the university, he would have been a lawyer now. (but Jack didn’t study law, he studied something else)

 

  1. verbele modale could (abilitate sau permisiune) si might (posibilitate) pto inlocui would in propozitia principala:

I could have made a cake for you if I had known it was you birthday. (abilitate)

The prisoner might have been let out on parole, if he hadn’t fought with his cellmate. (posibilitate)

 

NOTA: If only se poate folosi la toate tipurile de conditional pentru a sublinia speranta, dorinta sau regretul.

If only we had some money with us, we would take the cab.

If only we had paid the bill earlier, we would not have been evicted.

 

 

Super Slim