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ADVERBUL

A. Forma.

  1. unele adverbe sunt cuvinte independente – often, when?, now, very, soon, always:

Marie often sang in the choir.

 

  1. unele adverbe au aceeasi forma cu adjectivele – daily, early, fast, low, straight, well, back, enough, far, little, long, pretty, near, wrong, still, short, late, high, left, right, hard. Comparati:

The doctor drove fast. Fast food is popular with teenagers.

Julie called daily.                      Our daily routine is demanding.

Jim works pretty hard.             I love her pretty face.

 

  1. unele adverbe (in special cele de mod si grad) se formeaza adaugand adjectivelor terminatia -ly:

kind, kindly                 slow, slowly                 careful, carefully

happy, happily            simple, simply automatic, automatically

 

NOTA: Unele cuvinte terminate in -ly sunt adjective (nu adverbe!): lonely, lovely, likely, friendly, ugly, silly.

This is such an ugly car!

 

B. Ortografie.

a.       <y final se schimba in -i:             merry, merrily (EXCEPTIE: shy, shyly)

b.      <-e final se pastreaza:                 wise, wisely (EXCEPTIE: true, truly)

c.       <daca se termina in consoana +

     le, -e dispare si se adauga -y:    gentle, gently

d.      <cuvintelor terminate in -ic li se

adauga -ally:                                       scientific, scientifically

(EXCEPTIE: public, publicly)

 

C. Topica – topica adverbelor variaza, ea depinzand in primul rand de tipul de adverbe folosit. Exista trei pozitii de baza:

  1. la inceput – inainte de subiect:

Unfortunately, I couldn’t identify the thief.

 

  1. la sfarsit – dupa complement, sau daca nu exista, imadiat dupa verb:

That young man likes Melanie very much.

Alexandra was working hard.

 

NOTA: Nu plasati niciodata un adverb intre verb si complement.

I drink coffee slowly.

I drink slowly coffee.

  1. la mijloc:

He usually comes for tea. (inainte de verbul principal)

She is always smiling. (dupa verbul be)

They have rarely come to visit. (dupa primul verb auxiliar)

Jonathan could seldom telephone us. (dupa primul verb modal)

We certainly have to be more careful. (inainte de used to, have to, ought to)

 

D. Tipuri de adverbe.

  1. Adverbe de modkindly, easily, well, happily, fast, carefully, secretly, beautifully, reluctantly, foolishly, badly etc.

Pavarotti sang beautifully.

Terry spoke Spanish slowly.

 

NOTA: Adverbele referitoare la character sau inteligenta (foolishly, generously, sweetly, kindly, stupidly etc.) isi schimba sensul in functie de pozitie.

I stupidly replied. (= It was stupid of me to reply.)

I replied stupidly. (= I gave a stupid reply.)

 

  1. Adverbe de loc here, up, abroad, out, outside, in, away, everywhere, somewhere, nowhere, there etc.

They went everywhere.

The Crawfords are sending their daughter abroad.

 

NOTA: Adverbele de loc functioneaza adesea si ca prepozitii.

Joe ran down the stairs.

 

  1. Adverbe de timp yesterday, now, afterward, still, soon, eventually, recently, then, today, at once, till, tomorrow, since then etc.

Tomorrow we will begin the next lesson.

The holiday began yesterday.

 

NOTA: De obicei, adverbele au urmatoarea ordine: MOD – LOC – TIMP.

The baby slept well yesterday.

We’ll go there tomorrow.

Mark worked hard at school last year.

 

  1. Adverbe de frecventa always, usually, never, hardly ever, often, twice, once, continually, seldom, rarely, periodically etc.

Dictators usually live in fear.

Repeatedly, the students made the same mistake.

Our children walk to school every morning.

 

  1. Adverbe de opinie personally, obviously, frankly, certainly, luckily, actually, probably, definitely, surely etc.

You obviously like pizza.

Frankly, I don’t like him very much.

  1. Adverbe de grad fairly, quite, hardly, too, almost, pretty, rather, barely, completely, enough, nearly, really, just, even, very etc.

He is entirely right.

The horses galloped very fast.

My steak isn’t big enough.

I liked him a lot.

 

  1. Adverbe interogative when?, where?, why?, how?

When did they send the letter?

Where is he going?

Why is Cindy crying?

How do you spell your name?

 

ATENTIE! Farther / farthest se refera numai la distanta.

He ran farther than planned.

      Further / furthest se refera la grad.

He inquired further into the matter.

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